Creating a Shared Spirit Through Music:

:::

2017 / November

Lee Shan Wei /photos courtesy of Wind Music /tr. by Mark Rawson


Ever since Pangu created the universe, a natural music has resounded constantly through it, permeating our cells. It is the expression of the self, and the language of peoples. Those who love it explore its original implications with a reverential attitude, identifying interconnected spiritual resonances in distinctive regional forms. A music craze that has spanned the world for half a century fulfilled a dream for Taiwan in 2016. In the fall of 2017, in Tai­pei’s Da­jia Riverside Park, the joy is overflowing once again.


An inspiration among peoples

Musical notes and melodies have never been absent from the life of mankind. Babies’ innate waving of hands, kicking of feet and sing-song babblings string together the rhythm of notes, extolling the creativity of life. This common language of humanity pours the water of life into national cultures. Under the guidance of music, all the peoples of the world can connect seamlessly.

“World music” is not just a fashionable term; it has its academic place. It was first formally defined in 1965, in the ethnomusicology syllabus at Wesleyan University in Connecticut. “The appellation has its origins in the United States. All the music that was not mainstream in America began to be called ‘world music,’” says Yu Su-ying, the curator of World Music Festival Taiwan, and director of planning at Wind Music International Corporation. Music originates in culture. Even a very minor musical tradition has its historical significance. If one explores in depth the particular character of each regional musical style, one finds that it conceals a subtle pulse of its living environment delicately embedded in the music.

Colorful world music

The peoples of the world are many and varied, so world music is inevitably richly diverse. On the basis of the idea of the global village, all kinds of distinctive music are worthy of respect and preservation.

Amid frequent cultural interaction, musical styles gradually blend. Packaged by mass media and ­commercial fashion, the definition of “world music” has become broader and broader, presenting a harmony between tradition and modernity. “There are actually no specific criteria, but more a kind of spirit,” says Yu Su-ying. “African music was taken into the United States along with Negro slaves. That reverberating rhythm would later influence jazz. When jazz-influenced styles of music made their way back to Africa, they set off yet another wave.” These interactions between different regions have kindled infinite sparks.

“Although the lyrics were in languages we didn’t understand, those melodies and rhythms gave us an indescribable feeling of intimacy; it was as though our ancestral spirits were calling us, drawing us.” So say Boxing, a band which has developed the world music beat passionately and eclectically and was formed by members of Taiwan’s indigenous Paiwan tribe. “We created music in different styles, such as rock, hip-hop, Latin and electronic music, but all in our own mother tongue, giving voice to the passion within our souls.” Using battle rhythms that took no prisoners, they dared to innovate, courageously injecting traditional Eastern music into Western rock ’n’ roll, integrating American jazz with indigenous chanting. Constantly introducing new elements, they are helping to erode the geographical boundaries of folk music, giving listeners a completely new experience.

Chung She­fong—coordinator of the blog Trees, Music and Art, founded in 1993, which strives to promote ethnic music—believes that the core of ethnic music is that it must have ample culture to support it if it is to be refined into a mature form with substance. The fusion of musical styles from different parts of the world should not consist in the coarsely decontextualized creation of a superficial exoticism and sense of mystery, but requires a respectful attitude and a dialogue of equals, to produce music that builds on the historical depth and overall context of the different traditions.

Resonating with the melodies of the universe

On August 15, 1969, a gigantic jamboree of music got underway beneath the open skies of the eastern USA. Over three days, on Max Yasgur’s dairy farm near a hamlet named White Lake in the town of Bethel in upstate New York, 32 acts played before a crowd of some 400,000. The event was called the Woodstock Music & Art Fair, and it was a defining moment in rock music history. Thereafter, similar outdoor events were held all over the world, one after the other.

Imagine, on the grass and in the mud of vast fields, multitudes returning to the exuberance of childhood, gyrating and singing joyfully without care or inhibition. These are the scenes at the world’s biggest green-field music festival, the Glastonbury Festival. Since its founding in Great Britain in 1970, almost half a century ago, its annual crowds have grown exponentially, from 500 at the very beginning to some 175,000 this year.

In 1983, Peter Gabriel, leader of British rock group Genesis, launched a large-scale outdoor performance event, the World of Music, Arts, and Dance Festival (WOMAD), repositioning world music once again. It has become an annual bonanza in the popular music world.

This kind of fanatical enthusiasm for music has not only created constantly changing rainbows on the horizons of the US and UK, but sprays glittering sparks all over the rest of the world. Scotland, France, Spain, Portugal, Malaysia, Japan, Korea, one after the other, have hosted a succession of magnificent events.

Musical sparks from Taiwan

Music is infectious and Taiwan too is constantly generating the enjoyment it spawns. The Formoz Festival, which began in 1994, introduced to Taiwan the het­ero­gen­eous sounds of ethnic groups from all over the world, as well as blessing the nation with the atmosphere of the world’s music festivals. The Migration Music Festival, held at the outdoor music stage in ­Tai­pei’s Daan Park, not only saw contemporary world pop music performed in Taiwan, but also promoted some traditional tunes and singers from Taiwan to the world.

Spring Scream, starting in 1995, and held annually in Ken­ting at Taiwan’s southern tip, is the longest-running large-scale music festival in Taiwan’s history, as well as the nation’s largest international music, art and cultural performance event. In its record-breaking 2007 edition more than 230 domestic and overseas acts appeared over three days, with performances running simultaneously on ten stages.

The beat gravitated from Taiwan’s tail all the way to her head. Such events as the Ho-hai-yan Rock Festival at Gong­liao in New Tai­pei City and the ­Chiayi City International Band Festival added their own momentum, helping the music lovers of this treasure island to weave together the background to their lives.

Generating pride in Taiwan

In 2000, Tai­pei Arts International Association held a six-day “Taiwan World Music Festival” in Tai­pei, inviting singers and instrumentalists from Greece, Belgium and Hungary to perform music that blended traditional and popular styles.

The World Music Festival, organized by the Ministry of Culture, made its debut in 2015, and in 2016 attracted more than 30,000 delighted music fans. “I wanted to forge a music festival that belongs to the entire population, enabling family members, lovers, married couples and friends to enjoy a shared memory,” says Yu Su-ying, her eyes shining.

And now it’s time for World Music Festival Taiwan 2017, with the slogan “move your body, music your life.” On stage or off, there are no barriers. As long as you let yourself go, take off on the wings of musical dreams, immerse yourself in the joy of taking part and share in the writing of a common music of life.

This event mixing the intellectual with the emotional has attracted the attention of many notable figures in the world of music. Among the official activities are presentations by the curators of such events and institutions as the World Music Expo (WOMEX), Australia’s WOMADel­aide, Japan’s Okinawan Festival, mainland China’s Folk on the Road music festival, the Center for the Art of Performance at the University of California, Los Angeles, and New Mexico’s annual celebration of world music and culture, ¡Globalquerque!

These international presentations bring new musical values and open up new and otherwise inaccessible horizons, giving Taiwan an opportunity to breathe diverse musical scents from other terrains. “Taiwan too has many treasures of music and art, which other regions struggle to rival.” So says a confident Yu Su-ying, who has been deeply involved in local music for many years.

May this musical jamboree enable the uniqueness and preciousness of Taiwan’s traditional music and art to shine brightly and warmly, displaying new local talent. May it be passed from Taiwan to the world, to create pride and vibes that will always be Taiwan’s!         

相關文章

最新文章

繁體中文

用樂音串起心靈共鳴

文‧李珊瑋 圖‧風潮音樂提供

盤古開天以來,自然的樂章,恆久奏鳴於天地間,流動在細胞內。它是自我的表述,更是族群的語彙。愛樂人用尊敬的態度,探索原創的內涵,將獨特的地域音樂,串起心靈的共鳴。這股風行半世紀的跨界音樂風潮,2016年在台灣圓夢;2017年秋日,在大佳河畔,讓幸福再次沸騰。


在族群中啟蒙

音符與旋律,從來沒有在人類的生命中缺席。嬰兒與生俱來的手舞足蹈,咿咿呀呀,串連音符的律動,歌頌生命的原創。這個人類共同的語言,為民族文化注入活水。讓世界各個族群,在音樂引導下,無縫接軌。

地球上各個不同的族群,都有它獨特的語言和腔調,衍生出自我的韻律和節奏。搭配上自創的樂器,成就了特殊的旋律和繽紛的樂章。這些傳統音樂,有共通性,也有相異性,齊力譜出「世界音樂」的圖騰。無論是世人熟悉的,或是特立獨行的,只要能打動人心,都會獲得知音。

「世界音樂」不僅是流行的語彙,更有它學術上的地位。1965年,在美國康州衛斯里安(Wesleyan)大學民族音樂學課程大綱中,首度被正名。「這個稱呼,起源於美國。凡是美國本土沒有的音樂,就稱為世界音樂。」「2017世界音樂節@台灣」策展人、風潮音樂企劃總監于蘇英說。音樂源自於文化,任何微小的傳統音樂,都蘊含著歷史的意涵。如果深入探討各個地區的曲風特質,會發現其中隱含著生存環境的細微脈絡,精緻的鑲嵌在樂章中。

由學術研究的角度來看,「世界音樂」的源起,是「民族音樂學」。美國加州大學洛杉磯校區民族音樂學哲學博士趙琴說:「最初是由西方人以非西方的民間傳統音樂為研究對象。」鎖定的是印第安和愛斯基摩人。研究這些族群,在沒有受到西方文化滲入之前,用口耳相傳方式,所傳承的音樂。而後逐漸擴大範疇,納入東方和所有民間音樂。

色彩繽紛的世界音樂

世界上的族群難以計數,因此世界音樂必然繽紛多元。在地球村的概念下,每一種獨特的音樂都值得尊重與保存。17到19世紀間,技巧卓越的古典樂章固然值得敬仰傳頌,但是與文化核心緊密相扣的地方曲調,也同樣可以撼動人心,值得珍惜。

隨著文化交流的頻繁,音樂的形式也逐漸融合。在大眾媒體和商業流行的包裝下,「世界音樂」的定義愈來愈寬廣,呈現出傳統與現代相互契合。「它其實沒有標準,而是一種精神。」于蘇英說。「非洲的音樂隨著黑奴傳入美國,那震撼的節奏,為爵士注入新血。當這些加入爵士樂風的音樂,再度回流到非洲時,又掀起另一場波瀾。」這些異域的撞擊,激發出無盡的火花。

「雖然語言不同,我們聽不懂歌詞,但是那種旋律和節奏,讓我們有一種莫名的親切感,好像祖靈的召喚,牽引著我們。」來自排灣族部落的Boxing樂團成員,感受到世界音樂的悸動。「我們用母語編織搖滾、嘻哈、拉丁、電音等不同的曲風,吶喊出心靈的澎湃。」經過長期拳擊訓練的三對原住民兄弟,七年前組團,用不服輸的戰鬥節奏,勇於創新,大膽的將東方傳統樂曲,加入西方的搖滾;把美國爵士音樂,納入原住民的吟唱。不斷注入新的元素,讓族群音樂的地域界限逐漸消逝,給予世人全新的感受。

當人們厭倦了統合的複雜,就會珍惜原創的純潔。源自於族群的「世界音樂」,正在回歸本質,展現它迷人的質樸。無論是印尼爪畦、巴峇島的甘美朗合奏、印度的長頸Sitar琴、非洲Kora豎琴,與代表地中海沿海文化的西班牙塔特西里拉琴(Tartessian Lyre),以及世上最古老的歌唱音樂seikilos,都有它特異的文化根源與音樂傳奇。

創立於1993年,致力推廣世界民族音樂的「大大樹音樂圖像」負責人鍾適芳認為,民族音樂的核心,必須要有豐厚的文化作為支撐,才能烘焙出言之有物的成熟音樂。異域音樂的融合,不是粗暴的斷章取義,營造表象的異國情調與神秘感,必須要用尊重的態度,平等的對話,延續歷史的深度和音樂的脈絡。

音樂是會隨時代演進的,這是無可抵擋的潮流。但是創新者必須彰顯文化主體的獨特性,更不能喪失追本溯源的崇敬心。「你們必須要保留古老的元素,運用傳統的樂器,以文化作底蘊,才能在世界音樂中,顯現珍貴的價值。」于蘇英對以母語創作的Boxing樂團說。

在天地間與旋律共鳴

音樂與舞蹈,可以是一種自主的愉悅,也可以是一種眾人的共鳴。1969年8月15日,美國開風氣之先,讓音樂在天地間擺出盛宴。當時在紐約伯利恆鎮白湖村附近的牧場,舉行32場演出,吸引了40萬人次的觀賞。這項演出稱為「胡士托音樂藝術節」(Woodstock Music & Art Fair),是搖滾樂史上重要的轉捩點之一。自此世界各地紛紛跟進,一場又一場的戶外音樂會,如雨後春筍般,百花齊放,萬家爭鳴。

可以想像數十萬人,不限男女,不分老幼,被音樂這塊大磁鐵,緊緊吸附。眾人殷殷期盼中,來自全世界的樂手舞者,忘我的融入人群,盡情揮灑,激盪出藝術的火花。台上台下,人人在節奏中釋放壓力,在舞蹈中卸下心防。

寬闊的草地上、泥濘中,人人回歸童稚的不拘,忘我的跳躍歡唱。這是全世界最大的草地戶外音樂節「格拉斯頓柏立當代表演藝術節」(Glastonbury Festival)的寫照,自1970年在英國創始以來,近半世紀間,參加的人次由最初的500人,以百倍數的速度,持續成長,屢屢刷新紀錄。

此外,美國「創世紀」搖滾樂團團長Peter Gabriel在1983年發起大型戶外表演活動「音樂、藝術與舞蹈的世界節慶」(World of Music, Arts, and Dance Festival, WOMAD),為世界音樂重新定位,至今已成為流行樂界的年度盛事。

這份對音樂的狂熱,像是射向蒼穹的煙火,不僅在美國和英國天際創造萬變的彩虹,更在世界各地,不斷噴出閃耀的花火。蘇格蘭、法國、西班牙、葡萄牙、馬來西亞、日本、韓國,一次又一次,寫下光彩耀目的感動紀錄。風潮有聲出版有限公司創辦人暨現任總經理楊錦聰說:「這種感動,只要經歷一次,就會刻骨銘心,會成為生命的背景,永世相隨。」

由台灣發起之音樂火花

音樂是有感染力的,台灣也不停地創造出這份感動。1994年開始的「野台開唱」(Formoz Festival),將全球各族群的異質聲音引介進來,也把世界音樂節的氛圍帶進台灣。在大安森林公園露天舞台舉辦的「流浪之歌音樂會」,不僅把世界當前的流行樂曲在台灣展演,更把台灣的傳統樂曲歌手們推向國際。

1995年開始,在台灣最南端墾丁舉辦的「春天吶喊」(Spring Scream),簡稱「春吶」,為台灣歷史最悠久的大型音樂祭,也是台灣規模最大的國際型音樂藝術文化展演活動。寫下10個舞台同時開演的創舉,三天內,超過230組國內外演出者,破紀錄輪番演出。

這份悸動,由台灣尾,傳動到台灣頭。貢寮國際海洋音樂祭(Ho-hai-yan Rock Festival)、嘉義市國際管樂節(Chiayi City International Band Festival)等紛紛帶動,讓寶島的愛樂人,一起編織生命的背景。二十多年來的經營,把這種在露天聆賞音樂的氛圍,變成生活中的常態,讓更多人能夠輕鬆自在地享受音樂。

創造屬於台灣的驕傲

2001年台北藝術推廣協會主辦了為期6天的第一屆台北「世界音樂節」,邀請來自希臘、比利時、匈牙利的歌手和演奏者,演出融合傳統和流行的音樂。

2015年由文化部影視及流行音樂產業局所主辦的「世界音樂節」初試啼聲,2016年已獲得三萬多樂迷的共鳴。「我希望打造一個屬於全民的音樂節,讓家人、情侶、夫妻、朋友,擁有一個共同的回憶。」于蘇英雙眼發亮的說。要讓悸動永續綿延,旋律恆久不輟,深植在美麗寶島的人心。

潺潺流水畔,青青草原間,用音符穿透地域的束縛,用節奏打破傳統的窠臼。「2017世界音樂節@台灣」,不只耳朵,更節奏你的身體。台上台下沒有隔閡,只要釋放所有的束縛,放鬆的乘著音樂的夢想起飛,沉浸在參與的幸福中,共同編織生命的樂章。

這場融合知性與感性的盛會,深獲世界重要音樂人的重視,「世界音樂博覽會」(WOMEX)、澳洲「阿德雷德世界音樂藝術與舞蹈藝術節」(WOMADelaide)、日本沖繩文化藝術季、中國民謠在路上音樂節、美國UCLA表演藝術中心、美國新墨西哥世界音樂節等策展人都是座上佳賓。

這些世界知名的國際講座,為群眾帶來新的音樂價值觀,開拓狹隘閉塞的視野,讓台灣有機會呼吸到來自其他土地,多元的音樂氣息。「更何況台灣也有許多音樂藝術的珍寶,是其他地域難望項背的。」深耕本土音樂多年的于蘇英,自信十足的說。

透過這場音樂盛會,讓台灣傳統音樂藝術的特異性與珍貴性發光發熱,展現在地新能量,走出台灣,傳唱世界,創造出屬於台灣的震撼和驕傲!                                                                        

X 使用【台灣光華雜誌】APP!
更快速更方便!