竹樂流水響聲

印尼竹韻揚聲樂團
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2019 / 7月

文‧黃淑姿 圖‧莊坤儒


2015年施鷺音、張慧芳、鄭珊蒂、林夢娜與廖轉運等印尼新住民,因為經常參與台印文化交流,表演印尼舞蹈。某天再度受邀公開表演,考慮到印尼舞蹈表演頻率太高容易審美疲乏,靈機一動:「何不用印尼傳統樂器安克隆(Anklong)來演奏?」沒想到佳評如潮,「竹韻揚聲」就此誕生。


迄今,竹韻揚聲樂團已經在大大小小的場合中累積數十次演奏經驗,從中正紀念堂、國立臺灣博物館(簡稱臺博館)、立法院、總統就職典禮,到大稻埕國際藝術節、移民署與學校機構,不斷演出、教學與示範。四年下來,團員從創始的五位擴大到十多位,從單獨演出到結合舞蹈與服裝表演走秀,一天比一天進步提升。

稻米女神的賜福與庇護

「如果你問什麼竹樂器在世界上影響最大,我會毫不猶豫地說:是安克隆。」中國竹樂專家王巍在〈神奇竹樂6〉一文中寫道。安克隆是源自印尼西爪哇的傳統竹製敲擊樂器,在印尼、馬來西亞、菲律賓、新加坡等東南亞國家普遍流行,深入日常生活,開齋節、教會唱詩歌都有它的蹤影,與印尼的皮影戲、蠟染同樣被聯合國教科文組織列入人類非物質文化遺產名單中。

相傳15世紀時印尼巽他族人遇上糧荒,發明安克隆演奏祭神,使稻米女神降臨並賜福人間,保佑稻米豐收。安克隆因而成為祭典裡不可或缺的要角,也是印尼傳統甘美朗音樂重要的樂器編制之一。

家鄉記憶與文化交流

安克隆盛載著團員們的家鄉記憶,也是文化交流的重要工具,樂團挑選曲目格外用心,除了懷念的印尼歌曲,也穿插台灣人熟悉的國語、台語或客語歌曲,用音樂拉近彼此距離。

有時團長施鷺音會先端上「開胃菜」,簡短介紹安克隆的由來、演奏方式。團員們極有默契地配合解說示範演奏,逐一敲響手中的安克隆,讓觀眾清楚聽到,每個人拿到的安克隆都有不同音階。

引起觀眾對安克隆的好奇心後再介紹曲目,如印尼國歌《Tanah Air》(祖國),《Bengawan Solo》(梭羅河畔),「梭羅河是印尼爪哇島最長的河流,是經濟生活最繁榮的地方。這首歌很有名,被翻唱成多種語言,包括華語。」

音樂也是一條河,包涵、容納,極富感染力與創造力。樂音悠揚的背後,是各種成長背景、生活型態,有情感需求、文化歷史。竹韻揚聲樂團的姊妹們,在遠離家鄉2,800公里外的台灣,演奏著與他們同樣飄洋過海而來的安克隆。

團員們在印尼時並未學過安克隆,反而是來到台灣後才在竹韻揚聲裡從頭學起。

「我媽媽是老師,常在教會教人演奏安克隆,但她要我認真讀書,不要把時間花在學樂器上。」去年加入的羅莉莉說。華裔的張慧芳是雅加達人,提到戰後的印尼並不注重文化教育,「大家庭裡孩子多,有飯吃、有書念,能平安長大就很不錯了。」

來了台灣,度過一開始艱辛的適應期,孩子長大後不黏媽媽,才能開始多花點時間在興趣上,認真學習安克隆,也因為生活穩定而有閒暇投身公益,幫助身在台灣的印尼新住民或移工同胞。

各自精采的生活

團員們來自印尼雅加達、泗水等地,有家庭主婦、母語老師、司法通譯、專職翻譯,也有聯合醫院與移民署翻譯志工、博物館或古蹟導覽志工,普遍身兼數職、多才多藝。

團長兼指揮的施鷺音,畢業於印尼大學中文系,早年在印尼航空公司擔任翻譯,婚後來台接受更專業的司法通譯與博物館導覽訓練。擔任通譯、古蹟導覽,創辦樂團、舞團,甚至在2017年與黑手那卡西樂團合作創作歌曲……雖然仍是路痴,但不像從前只知道從家裡通往辦公室的路,她跨出家庭與辦公室走向公共領域,腳踏實地踩出一條寬廣大道,台灣也逐漸變成第二故鄉。

廖轉運是家族中第一個念大學的理科高材生,就業時收入頗豐,異國婚姻將她帶來台灣,為了更好地教育孩子,堅持到大學裡修了一年課。通過司法通譯考試,並擔綱錄製官方印尼街的介紹口白。

說得一口流利英文的張慧芳,是內政部印尼母語教材編輯之一,經常接待外賓。體認到語言能力的重要性,讓孩子從小說印尼語,兒子鄭堯天不負期望,大學畢業後外派海外、表現優異而年薪破百萬。

林夢娜做得一手好菜,曾受邀在臺博館嶄露廚藝,用沙薑等香料作出鮮美家鄉料理。好學不倦的她取得美髮技術士證照,每年會特地安排固定帶孩子回印尼旅遊、探親。

竹韻揚聲也有第二代加入,廖轉運的兒子羅章佑,身穿中爪哇禮服演奏台灣和印尼歌謠,去年在中正紀念堂與媽媽合奏演出。

林夢娜的兒子劉華盛在樂團裡找到自信,確定未來朝音樂發展,選讀表演藝術科。國中會考前夕仍繼續參加彩排,會考結束後直奔臺博館,繼續年輕生命裡另一場燦爛演出。從內向到日漸成熟,劉華盛的自信表現,讓劉爸爸驚喜不已。

結合文化的認同之路

18世紀時印尼雅加達的華裔族群,與21世紀台灣的竹韻揚聲團員,有類似的音樂文化旅程。

當時印尼土生華人從雅加達市區遷居到舊城區外的草埔(Glodok),生活閒暇之際取出慣用的蕭、胡等中式樂器,加入印尼木琴演奏,發展出Gambang Kromong音樂。兩百年過去了,Gambang Kromong成為雅加達著名的傳統藝術形式,也是印尼千島之國多元文化的象徵。

如今印尼政府有意識地透過留學獎勵、基礎教育與觀光旅遊,多管齊下,保存並發展傳統藝術文化,吸引全世界駐足。走在爪哇島的萬隆藝術村,街頭隨處可見藝術家自製安克隆擺攤販售,有示範演奏,更定期舉辦大大小小的安克隆演奏會,處處有樂音與歡樂。

無獨有偶,竹韻揚聲也在台灣傳承了印尼傳統文化火炬,讓更多人認識安克隆,也更了解印尼悠久動人的音樂藝術。

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Gema Angklung

Traditional Indonesian Music in Taiwan

Sanya Huang /photos courtesy of Chuang Kung-ju /tr. by Jonathan Barnard

In 2015 Indra Tan, Fonny Zhang, Mona Lin, Kartika Condro Ester and other Indonesian immigrants who frequently engage in Taiwanese‡Indonesian cultural exchange, had been giving some performances of Indonesian dance. The high frequency of performances began to make them feel that they were in an aesthetic rut. Then one day they had a flash of inspiration: “Why not start giving angklung performances instead?” The origins of the performance group Gema Angklung can be traced back to that moment.


 

Blessings of the rice goddess

“If asked which bamboo instrument has had the biggest impact on the world, I would answer without hesita­tion: the angklung.” So wrote Wang Wei, an expert on Chinese bamboo instruments, in his essay“Marvelous Bamboo Instruments, VI.” The angklung is a traditional percussion instrument made from bamboo that origin­ated in western Java. It is popular in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and other Southeast-Asian countries, where it has become a part of daily life. One can frequently hear it played during Eid al-Fitr (the festival marking the end of Ramadan) or to accompany the singing of hymns. Like Indonesian shadow-puppet ­theater and batik, the musical instrument has been listed by UNESCO as part of the “Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.”

According to legend, the Sundanese people of Java experi­enced a famine in the 15th century and invented the angklung to perform for the harvest god, which caused the goddess of rice to descend among the people and provide them with abundant rice harvests. Con­sequently, the angklung has come to play an irreplaceable role in the harvest festival and is one of the most important instru­ments in traditional gamelan music.

Cultural exchange and memories of home

For members of Gema Angklung, the instrument carries memories of home and provides important opportun­ities for cultural exchange. They select the music to perform with care. Apart from having nostalgic feelings about Indonesian tunes, they also sprinkle in some familiar Mandarin, Taiwanese and Hakka tunes, leveraging music to reduce culture gaps.

Staples of the group’s performances include “Tanah Air” (“motherland”) and “Bengawan Solo” (“the banks of the Solo River”). “The Solo is the longest river on the island of Java, and it passes through some of the most prosperous areas of the nation,” says group leader Indra Tan. “The song is quite famous, and it has been sung in several languages, including Mandarin.”

Inclusive, accommodating, infectious and creative, music is like a river. Behind its melodies and beats are all manner of development paths, lifestyles, emotional needs and cultural histories. No members of the group had ever played the angklung in Indonesia. It wasn’t until they had immigrated to Taiwan that they began to learn how to produce sounds from its bamboo tubes.

“My mother was a teacher, and at church she would teach people how to play the angklung,” says Lily Lo, who joined the group last year. “But she wanted me to focus on my schoolwork and not spend any time learning how to play a musical instrument.” Explaining how postwar Indonesia didn’t stress cultural education, Fonny Zhang, an ethnic Chinese from Jakarta, notes, “In big families with many children, you were doing pretty well if you could buy enough food and send the kids to school.” 

Meaningful lives

Members of the group hail from Jakarta, Surabaya and other places in Indonesia. Multitalented, they all wear multiple hats.

Indra Tan, the group leader and conductor, is an inter­preter and guide at historic sites. She has founded musical groups and dance companies, and in 2017 she even cowrote songs with Black Hand Nakasi, a Taiwanese “workers’ band.” Expanding her realm beyond home and office, she has planted her feet into Taiwan’s public realm as the island has become her second homeland.

Kartika Condro Ester, the first in her family to go to college, studied in a STEM field and made a good income when she was working back in Indonesia. Her marriage to a man from Taiwan is what brought her here. To set an example to her own children, she insisted on pursuing another year of higher education in Taiwan. After passing the exam to serve as a legal interpreter, she provided the voiceover for a Ministry of Educa­tion video intro­ducing Taipei’s “Indonesia Street.”

Fluent in English, Fonny Zhang is an editor of Indo­nesian mother-tongue educational materials at the Minis­try of the Interior, and she often hosts foreign visitors. Cognizant of the importance of language skills, she has spoken Indonesian with her children since they were little. Her son ­Zheng Yao­tian hasn’t disappointed her: After graduating from university he was posted abroad, where he has performed well on the job and earns over NT$1 million per year.

Mona Lin is a skilled chef and was once invited to the National Taiwan Museum to give a demonstration, where she showed how best to use spices and herbs such as sand ginger in downhome Indonesian cooking. A tireless learner, she is a licensed hair stylist. Every year she brings her children back to Indonesia to travel and visit relatives.

Gema Angklung has also brought in members of the next generation: Lin’s son Liu Hua­sheng has developed confidence by participating in the group and is determined to pursue a future in music, having enrolled in a performing arts program. The night before the junior-­high general assessment exam, he still participated in a dress rehearsal, and right after finishing the exam he hurried to the National Taiwan Museum to give an outstanding performance. Formerly highly introverted, he has gradually gained confidence as he has matured. That has delighted his father to no end.

Towards an integrated cultural identity

In the 18th century, when Jakarta’s ethnic Chinese community moved to Glodok, which is outside the old city, they began to play their traditional Chinese wind and stringed instruments in ensembles along with gambangs, which are traditional xylophone-like Indonesian instruments. They thus created what has become known as “gambang kromong” music. In the 200 years since, this kind of music has become a famous traditional art form in Jakarta and a symbol of multiculturalism for the whole Indonesian archipelago.

Today, the Indonesian government is interested in preserving its traditional arts and culture and in attracting the world to visit. In Java’s Jelekong “artists’ village,” one can see angklungs that artists have made themselves for sale in their street stalls. There are demonstrations of how to play them, and at scheduled times there are angklung concerts large and small. Every­where there is joyous music.

Likewise, Gema Angklung is carrying the torch for traditional Indonesian culture in Taiwan by helping more people to become acquainted with the angklung and to gain a deeper understanding of Indonesia’s long history of moving music.

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