旗山鎮上的老屋:洪厝巷

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1981 / 4月

文‧沈玫姿 圖‧曉陽


冬日,我們尋找陽光,卻往往看到更多大廈的陰影。

夏日,我們尋不得習習的涼風,只得讓冷氣機隆隆作響。

我們常會深深懷念古老中國房屋與庭園的格局,嚮往那冬日的溫暖與夏日的陰涼,還有那其中可以居、可以遊、可以安的舒適與恬然。

在高雄縣的旗山鎮,有這樣的一幢古厝被保留著,那就是—洪厝巷。


純樸小鎮上最有名的大宅

旗山鎮是台灣南部的一個小山城,這裡的居民泰半務農為生,香蕉、芋頭、柳橙是這裡的特產。走入旗山鎮熱鬧的街道,雖然依舊能感覺出鄉下特有的純樸與緩慢悠閒的生活步調,但那些能夠引人發出思古幽情的老厝,卻躲不過時代進步的巨輪,一幢幢被拆除改建了。

延平路,是其中一條相當熱鬧的街道,放眼望去,鋼筋水泥的樓房佔了大半,而正在進行的建築工程也四處可見。

「洪厝巷」是這裡一幢有名的大宅,就座落在這條路旁的兩扇大鐵門裡。

從鐵門進去,走過一條長長的甬道,右邊呈現兩幢傳統的中國式建築,坐西朝東,呈前後排列。

向屋內走進去,穿過一扇又一扇的木門,一道道開栓的聲音,和著腳步聲在寂靜的廊中迴響。深宅大院的氣勢,於此已揣摩出一、二了。

「洪厝巷」古厝的主人——洪老太太,說起這幢大宅院建築的經過:

洪家歷代以務農為生,到民國初年洪見萬時,除繼續務農外,又經營了一家磚窯。他們一家子克勤克儉,家業日漸興旺起來。當時,台灣正值日據時代,洪見萬在財力漸豐之後,眼看日式房屋一棟棟蓋起,而中國傳統的建築卻日趨式微,於是決定蓋一間純中國式的宅第。

嘔心瀝血督工建造,積勞成疾未及享受

民國十六年,洪見萬請來唐山地理師勘察地形與風水,選定旗尾山前的一塊土地,開始動工興建起來。洪見萬沒有念過什麼書,但由於一直從事磚窯業,對建築已有相當的領悟,他自行設計,然後斥鉅資由大陸延聘工人來此興建。

建築的材料,也極盡考究之能事,大石柱與棟樑的木材都是由大陸運來的,磚和琉璃瓦則是自己的磚窯精心燒製的。

洪見萬親自督工,要求很嚴,希望能達到盡善盡美的地步。稍有不滿意,就令工匠拆除重建;工人們也一換再換,歷經五年,終於民國二十一年竣工。而洪見萬在這五年當中積勞成疾,完工的次年即不幸過世,享年僅五十八歲。

在這幢大宅後的祖祠中,供奉著六座高約一公尺的石頭人像。洪老太太說,中間一對夫婦,是洪見萬的父母親,右邊兩男一是洪見萬、另一是他弟弟,左邊二人則是洪見萬的兩個太太。

這些石像,是洪見萬生前請雕刻名家,依各人的身材、形貌雕鑿而成的,採用的是大陸運來最好的石料,見過石像本人的,亦都嘖嘖稱奇,以為石像幾可亂真。

香煙繞繚不絕,傳統延續不斷

在石像的前方,擺著一座宮殿式的小盒子,兩扇門開啟著,那是洪家祖宗的牌位。香燼一段段緩緩落下,煙絲一縷縷裊裊上升,在這座莊嚴的祠堂裡,洪家子弟一代代信守著敬祖、祭祖的傳統,先人成家立業的精神,也就這樣延續下來。

祖祠的正門上,高懸著一塊匾額,書寫著「敦煌堂」三個大字,這是因為考據洪姓源流,洪姓祖先有一系是從大陸的甘肅敦煌遷移來台的,洪家懸掛著這塊匾額,含有追念根源的意義。

前面的正廳中,設有神案,從天花板上垂吊下來的宮燈,已被經年累月的香火燻染成棕黑色;神案前兩旁,四張太師椅靠牆擺著。壁上的老鐘已經停擺。所有的陳設都是古老的,各樣家具經過時間的洗禮,已失去了原有的光澤,卻也添增一層古樸的溫潤。

洪老太太接著推開了廂房的木門,一股木頭的香味撲鼻而來,原來這些廂房目前已當成儲藏室,裡頭堆放著許多舊的家具與器物,有:床、桌、椅、農具……等。洪老太太說:「每過一陣子,我都會請人來清理打掃一次。這些東西都是我們洪家先人使用過的,我們總是儘量想保存它們。」

儉樸持家,至今未違

步出屋外,回顧這幢老宅,建築雕作都極精美的棟樑及斗拱,以及上面塗附的中國建築上特有的紅、藍、金、黃……等色彩,在陽光的照射下,顯得更為耀眼。洪老太太也讚嘆到:「這房子的漆料真好,這麼久了,也不會褪色。」

古厝前的大廣場,是從前用來曬穀的。洪老太太憶起當年的情景,她說:「我嫁到洪家來時,洪家雖然早已是旗山首屈一指的大富人家,但全家上下從沒有一個閒人,大家對做田的事還是非常的認真。到了各種作物收成的時候,更是全家總動員」,她指著曬穀場接著說:「我們一家人在這裡曬穀子、曬地瓜、曬玉米……,常常是從一大清早忙到天黑為止。」

在曬穀場前,還有一個花園,園內有一個水塘,還有假山、涼亭、噴泉、各種花草樹木……等。另外還擺設了幾盆盆景。洪家老三說,這個花園經過好幾次的颱風侵襲,曾經過多次的整修,因此已和從前的規模大不相同了。

隨著時代的進步和工商業的發展,洪老太太(她是洪見萬的孫媳婦,她的先生去年過世)的四個兒子,除了老大繼續務農外,其他三位都投入了工商業,老二開雜貨店和旅社,老三、老四則都是建築商。現在洪厝巷內只住著洪老太太和她未婚的小兒子了。

一個和樂的大院落

洪厝巷佔地有二千多坪,除了中間兩棟古厝外,兩邊在後來陸續蓋了不少中西合璧的新屋。洪老太太把這些房子分租給十幾戶人家。

由於洪厝巷自成格局,不和外面直接接觸,就形成了一個小社區。也由於有圍牆與鐵門把這十幾戶人家攏在一起,這個大院落中的住家相處得極其融洽、和睦,就好比是個大家族一般。

黃昏時候,各家的孩子們都放學回來了。他們丟下書包,相互吆喝著,便一起跑到曬穀場上,玩起各種遊戲來。他們跑著,笑著、鬧著……,他們的媽媽們,則正在為晚餐忙碌,並趁著炒菜的空檔,彼此交換一下對管教孩子的看法與烹飪的秘訣……。

夜幕低垂了,曬穀場對面的旗尾山漸漸蒙上了一層黑紗。洪厝巷裡一盞盞燈亮起,孩子們都各自回家吃晚飯了。飯桌上,孩子們在叨念著:到了夏天,就可以搬個小板凳,到曬穀場上聽叔叔伯伯們說故事了。

〔圖片說明〕

P.18、P.19

1.「洪厝巷」古厝的雕樑畫棟,雖經歷一甲子的風霜雨露,至今依舊閃爍中國傳統建築藝術的光彩。圖2:「洪厝巷」大廳面對著的,是一大片香蕉園的旗尾山。圖3:洪厝巷正面全景。圖4:屋前是昔日的曬榖場,今天已成厝內孩子們嬉戲的場所。

P.20、P.21

圖1、2:古厝內的擺設,無論是棟樑、案桌、宮燈或太師椅,一切都是中國式的。圖3、4:洪厝巷二景。圖5:洪見萬興建洪厝巷時,特別禮聘唐山師傅、用唐山大石、雕刻了他父母親、兩個太太、弟弟和他自己(右邊第二位)的石像,放置在祠堂中,供後人瞻仰。

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EN

Faded Glory of Hung Tso Hsiang


"On a winter's day we look for the sunlight, yet see ever more shadows of mansions.

On a summer's day we seek vainly the intoxicating southern breeze and still hear only the rattle of air conditioners.

We often remember the ancient buildings or the drying yard in front of the temple..."

At Chi Shan, a farm village in the mountains of Kaohsiung County, there is a place which could inspire such musings. Walking amid the hubbub of Chi Shan's streets, one can yet feel the purity of the countryside and its easy-going ways. The old buildings can't escape the effects of progress, however. One by one, they are being torn down.

Hung Tso Hsiang is hidden behind two huge iron gates on the busy Yen Ping Road. After entering the district, one walks along a narrow path. Two ancient structures, facing east, come into view on the right. The colors of antique hexagonal tiles and porcelain murals, and the paint on the gate and pillars have already faded. We felt this old shrine was telling us its story.

Our tour guide was an elderly Mrs. Hung, wife of the architect's grandson. She outlined the structure's history to us:

The Hungs were once farmers. Until the early years of the Republic, Hung Chien-wan also managed a brick kiln. At that time Taiwan was under Japanese occupation. Hung Chien-wan saw Japanese-style buildings being erected while traditional Chinese ones were demolished. This prompted him to build a Chinese-style house and garden.

In 1927 he invited a Tangshan geomancer to survey a construction site near Chiwei Mountain. Though he had no formal education, Hung Chien-wan had, through his management of the kiln, acquired a knowledge of architecture. He designed the house himself, then spent a large sum hiring workers from the mainland and buying stone pillars from Tangshan, wood en beams from Fukien, as well as baking opaque tiles in his own kiln. He personally supervised the work, demanding it be as close as possible to perfection down to the smallest detail. By 1932 the work was complete. Unfortunately, the task had so exhausted him that he died the following year at the age of 58.

On the ancestors' memorial at the rear are six one-foot-high statues of Hung Chien-wan, his parents, his brother and his two wives. A famous sculptor carved each figure to exact proportions and captured facial expressions precisely, causing the older people to marvel at their authenticity.

In front of the statue is an open, palace-style box containing the Hung ancestors' sacred tablets. Smoke pouring from one end of the censer gives one the feeling that this shrine emits a life-spirit, and that the thread of the Chinese nation is unbroken by virtue of these age-old rites.

Directly above the gate hangs a plaque inscribed "Tunhuang Temple." The Hungs left no record of their genealogy, but research reveals that a clan of their ancestors migrated from Tunhuang in Kansu province on the mainland.

The big hall at the front was used for sacrifices. From the ceiling hangs a palace lantern, already turned brown-black by the incense burned in it. When we stepped out of the hall at about 10 a.m., the winter sunlight enveloped the shrine like a golden cloth. There were rooms on each side used as storage areas, containing old beds, chairs, farm implements, and so on. Mrs. Hung said: "I have to have some body sweep out periodically; I mustn't let these things decay."

Sunlight was reflected from the elegantly-carved beams in a dazzling mixture of red, gold and yellow. Mrs. Hung exclaimed: "These beams were well-varnished; after so many years, they still retain their color!"

In front of the shrine were two large courtyards, Mrs. Hung remembered how things were when she had just married into the family: "Even though the Hungs were already the wealthiest family in Chi Shan, they were still farmers. Here we dried seeds and sweet potatoes. We were often busy from early morning until after sunset."

In front of the drying yard was a garden with a large pond. Off to one side were a small artificial hill, a rest shed pavilion and a fountain. On the other side were several potted plants. The third eldest of the family said that the garden had been laid waste by typhoons and then replanted a number of times, so it no longer has its original appearance. The stone table and chairs in the shed pavilion have been pushed into a corner to make way for marble furniture.

At dusk the children came home from school and played cops and robbers in the drying yard, while their mothers cooked and compared notes on bringing up children and helping them with their homework.

Mrs. Hung's daughter, now married, said, "Anyone growing up here is bound to have a happy childhood."

[Picture Caption]

1. The elegantly-carved beams of Hung Tso Hsiang still retain their original brilliance after half a century. 2. The residential hall facing the huge banana orchard and Chiwei Mountain. 3. Front view of the building. 4. Drying yard provides a playground for children.

1.2. Beams, lantern and chairs. 3.4. Two views of the shrine. 5. A Tangshan sculptor has carved the six statues of Hung Chien-wan, his parents, his brother and his two wives.

 

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